Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was an African-American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam, who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the 1950s and ’60s. To his admirers, he was a courageous human rights advocate for racial equality, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. By his detractors, he was accused of preaching racism and violence. On February 21, 1965, three gunmen shot him 15 times at close range while he was delivering a speech. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York’s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.